b001

重庆翻译七夕法语翻译技巧的三个重点

发布时间:2018-09-10  作者:cqylfy.com
“七夕”在网上有许多种翻译办法:

Qixi Festival(七夕节),Double Seventh Festival(双七节),乃至Magpie Festival(喜鹊节)。

重庆翻译其实这些翻译都有舍近求远之嫌,不了解我国文明的外国人是不会了解的。

下面咱们来学习一段前些年的BBC新闻,看一看“七夕”怎么翻译比较好。以下新闻摘自BBC官网(节选)

Celebrated this year on August 15, the Chinese Saint Valentine's Day was created in memory of two ancient lovers who were separated by a goddess and only allowed to meet once a year.

Many Chinese also commemorate the Western Valentine's Day on February 14, with shop owners and florists cashing on the rush of flowers and gifts for loved or desired ones and restaurants fully booked.

the Chinese Saint Valentine's Day 我国情人节(七夕)。笔者以为,这是最务实,最有功率的翻译办法。

相似状况,“梁山伯与祝英台”其实翻译为Chinese Romeo and Juliet(我国的罗密欧与朱丽叶)就能够了。

重庆英语翻译前必定要先通读原文,读懂文字内容,了解作者的意图和风格,从全体上把握原作,即如傅雷先生所说的“将原作(连同思

想、爱情、气氛、情调等等)化为我有”,然后再动手翻译。翻译进程中,对上下文的语境要给予足够的注重,这有助于了解原文。由于汉语和外语在句式和表达办法上的距离,在翻译时,需求采纳二定的技巧,例如拆分句、加减词、词类变换等等,使译文的表达愈加契合汉语的表达习惯。

据此,主张笔译学习者要点培育以下几个方面的才能:

1.了解才能

了解才能指的是翻译时,对原文含义的了解和把握。了解才能包括两个方面:文字了解才能和专业了解才能。

文字了解指的是在言语层面上对原文内容的了解,需求经过对词汇、语句进行正确的剖析,精确地把握原文的确切含义。能很好地了解原文是一名合格舌人的首要要求。舌人需求不断提高言语归纳才能,扩大词汇量,了解语法现象,了解不同民族的思想办法和特有表达办法。

能够很好地了解原文,专业了解才能也很重要。特别是专业性稿件,它们触及的专业性词汇和表达较多,假如短少相关主题常识,就无法很好地了解原文,更谈不上精确地翻译了。舌人常常会接触到国内外各范畴、各学科的内容,需求对当今世界的许多严重政治、经济、法令和社会等问题进行翻译。这就要求舌人长时间不懈尽力,尽力培育广泛的学习兴趣,拓展常识面,堆集专业词汇和表达办法,不断扩大前史、社会、内政。交际、国际事务、科学技术、文明艺术、经济、交易、法令、工农等职业的基础常识,以便能够用丰厚的相关常识来补偿言语才能的缺乏。

2.表达才能

表达才能指的是翻译时,对原文含义的再现和表述,即杰出的中外文文字表达才能。检验自己表达才能的最简略办法是看自己用汉语进行写作时组织文章、使用语法、运用词汇等方面的水平。在写作时应该尽力做到主题清晰、逻辑清晰、语句通畅、词汇丰厚、风格明显,防止主题不流畅、逻辑含糊、语句艰涩、词汇贫乏等问题。训练表达才能,寻觅合适自己的操练办法很重要,勤考虑多操练是必不可少的。舌人要多动笔,多做操练,多研讨别人的译作,总结经历和经历,这样会发现和补偿自己在译法、用语、遣词造句等方面的缺乏,不断提高翻译水平。

3.技巧才能

由于文明和思想的差异,汉语和外语在语法、词汇、修辞等方面均存在着差异,因而在进行中外文互译时必然会遇到许多困难,需求运用必定的翻译技巧。常用的翻译技巧许多,如增译法、省译法、变换法、拆句法、兼并法、正译法、反译法、倒置法、包孕法、插入法、重组法、归纳法,等等。因而有人说翻译是一门艺术。舌人能够经过学习和实践,借鉴别人的经历并结合各自的特色,开掘立异翻译办法。

“开场白”、“结束语”以及“规则与罚则”是每一部法令法规必不可少的内容,把握了这三个部分的翻译,法令法规的翻译会变的简略、简略的多。

一、先来看“开场白”。下面便是一部典型的地办法规的卷首语:

第一条 为加强市容和环境卫生办理,发明和保护整齐、美丽的市容环境,保证公民身体健康,促进经济发展和社会文明前进,依据有关法令、法规,结合本市实际状况,拟定本法令。(摘自天津市市容和环境卫生办理法令)

开场白一般有四个雷打不动的组成部分。即“为了”、“依据”、“结合”、“拟定”。依据英语行文特色,应该先翻“拟定”,These Regulations are enacted (formulated),一般formulate用的多些,从英语词义剖析,enact好像愈加精确些。有学者主张把enact与formulate一起用上。精确是精确了,可是究竟显得有点儿负担。下面是译文:

Article 1  These Regulations are enacted in accordance with pertinent laws and regulations and in light of the concrete conditions of this Municipality, with the purpose of strengthening the administration of cityscape and environmental sanitation, creating and maintaining a clean, beautiful cityscape and environment, protecting people’s health, promoting economic growth, civilization and progress of society.

还有三处小当地需求阐明一下。

1. 法令也能够用奇数。

2. “法令”与“本市”大写的意图是为了夺目、突出,并与本法令中说到的别的一些法令加以差异。

3. With the purpose of 或许with the aim to 后边都应该用动词+ing的方式。

在开场白中,往往还有一些要害名词的解说,施行本法的规模以及担任单位的录用等项内容。现别离阐明如下:

要害名词解说:

第三条本法令所称的劳作和社会保证(以下简称劳作保证)监察,是指劳作保证行政部门依法对用人单位和劳作者、就业服务机构、医疗服务机构恪守劳作保证法令、法规的状况进行监督查看,对违背劳作保证法令、法规的行为依法进行处理的行政执法活动。(摘自《天津市劳作和社会保证监察法令》)

Article 3 The labour and social security (hereinafter abbreviated as labour security) supervision mentioned in this Regulation refers to the activities of the administrative department for labour security, in supervising and checking, according to law, employing units and labourers ,employment intermediary agencies, and medical facilities of their observation of the laws and regulations on labour security and, in handling, according to law, acts breaching laws and regulations on labour security.

施行本法规模:

第二条 在本市行政区域内从事建造工程的新建、扩建、改建等有关活动,以及对建造工程质量施行监督办理的,有必要恪守本规则。(摘自《天津市建造工程质量办理规则》)

Article 2  These Regulations apply to the newly-built, expanded and renovated construction projects carried out in this Municipality and the quality control thereof.

担任单位:

第六条天津经济技术开发区办理委员会(以下简称开发区管委会)是天津市公民政府(以下简称市公民政府)的派出机构,代表市公民政府对开发区施行统一办理。(摘自《天津经济技术开发区法令》)

Article 6 The Administrative Committee of the Tianjin Economic―Technological Development Area (hereinafter referred to as TEDAAC) is delegated by the Tianjin Municipal People’s Government (hereinafter referred to as the Municipal People’s Government), and shall exercise a uniform administration of TEDA on behalf of the Municipal People’s Government.

既然在中文法令文书行文中,开场白的上述内容是必不可少的,翻译起来,也有一些比较固定的译法,无妨一记。“所称”……“是指”,有几种常见的译法。

一是如上面的译文所示“mentioned……refers to ”,也能够翻译成“be referred……shall be”;

“有必要恪守本规则”或许“适用本规则”,能够一概翻译成“apply to”,没不要把前者翻译成“must abide by”。。

二、再看一下“结束语”的翻译。结束语首要要说,本法令从何时起收效,有的时候还要阐明曾经拟定的某某法令一起废止。请看上述有关市容法令的结束语以及译文:

第五十九条  本法令自发布之日起施行。1998年2月25目天津市第十二届公民代表大会常务委员会第四十次会议经过的《天津市环境卫生办理法令》一起废止。

Article .59  These Regulations shall become effective as from the date of promulgation. The Regulations of Tianjin Municipality on Environmental Sanitation that was adopted at the 40th Session of the Standing Committee of the Twelfth Tianjin Municipal People’s Congress on February 25, 1998 shall be abrogated simultaneously. wwww.legaltranz.com

“收效”译法不一而足。常常选用的有:take effect,come into effect,become effective 等等。 假如原文是从某日起施行,要用as of 这个词组,比方从2003年12月20日起施行,要说These Regulations shall take effect as of December 20,2003,而不要说成as from December 20,2003。“一起废止”则比较简略,译成be abrogated simultaneously 即可。

三、“规则与罚则”。

这两部分是孪生兄弟,相得益彰。一般状况下,翻译罚则只要在规则前边加一个“不”字即可。在数码年代,更是不费吹灰之力,将规则中的有关内容仿制,张贴过来,先行否定,然后再稍加收拾即可。请看《天津市收买废旧金属和信任寄卖业治安办理办法》里的比方:

第三条 运营收买生产性废旧金属的单位,须经运营所在地的公安分局、县公安局检查,契合规则的,由市公安局核发特种职业许可证。

运营收买非生产性废旧金属和信任寄卖业的单位和个人,须到运营所在地的公安分局存案。

制止无证运营。

第十一条 违背本办法第三条第一款规则, 不合法收买生产性废旧金属的,予以撤销,没收不合法收买的物品及违法所得;对单位或直接责任者可并处5000元以上1万元以下罚款。

违背本办法第三条第二款规则,不合法收买非生产性废旧金属的,对单位或直接责任者给予正告或处500元以下罚款。

违背本办法第三条第二款规则,不合法运营信任寄卖业的,予以查封,对单位或直接责任者处1万元以下罚款,有违法所得的,处3万元以下罚款。(摘自《天津市收买废旧金属和信任寄卖业治安办理办法》)

Article 3 The units that engage in purchasing the industrial waste and used metals shall apply to the public security sub-bureau or county bureau of their location of business for examination, pass the examination, and obtain the permit for special business issued by the Municipal Public Security Bureau.

Units and individuals that engage in purchasing non-industrial waste and used metals and in running secondhand businesses shall file a report for record with the public security bureau of their location of business..

It is prohibited to run, without permits, businesses in the above- mentioned fields.

Article 11 Where a unit or individual, in violation of paragraph 1 of Article 3 of these Measures, illegally purchases waste and used industrial metals, the authorities concerned shall stop its business and confiscate the illegally purchased articles,and the illegally obtained profits; It may also impose a fine of not less than Renminbi 5,000 yuan but not more than Renminbi 10,000 yuan on the unit or the person directly responsible. wwww.legaltranz.com

Where a unit or individual, in violation of paragraph 2 of Article 3 of these Measures, illegally purchases waste or used non-industrial metals, the relevant authorities shall give the unit or the person directly responsible a warning or impose a fine of not more than Renminbi 500 yuan.

Where a unit or individual, in violation of paragraph 2 of Article 3 of these Measures, illegally runs secondhand businesses, the authorities concerned shall close the shop and impose on the unit or the individual directly responsible a fine of not more than Renminbi 10,000 yuan; In case there is illegally obtained profit, the fine shall be not more than Renminbi 30,000 yuan。

当然,规则与罚则的写法有各种不同的组织。有前后分列的,如上例,有的乃至还专门列出一章,谓之曰“奖赏与处分”或“法令责任”;也有的则把规则与罚则写在同一条款傍边,这样,倒也显得愈加紧凑一些。下面是一个规则与罚则并列的比方。选自《天津市市容和环境卫生办理法令》。

第三十一条  制止下列影响环境卫生清洁的行为:

〈一〉随地吐痰、吐口香糖、便溺,乱倒粪便;

〈二〉乱扔烟蒂、纸屑、瓜果皮核以及各类包装废弃物等;

〈三〉乱倒、乱堆渣土、污泥或许其他废弃物,向路途、河道、公共场地上抛撒杂物、废弃物,由建筑物或许车辆向外投掷杂物、废弃物。

违背前款第〈一〉项规则的,责令即时铲除,并处五十元以上一百元以下罚款;违背第〈二〉项规则的,责令即时铲除,并处十元以上五十元以下罚款;违背第(三〉项规则的,责令期限铲除,逾期不铲除的,处五十元以上五百元以下罚款,其间单位违背此项规则的,处五百元以上五千元以下罚款。

Article 31 The following acts that affect environmental sanitation are prohibited:

(1) Spitting, throwing chewing gums, urinating and moving bowels at inappropriate places or dumping human wastes,

(2) Littering, throwing cigarette butts, the core and shell of fruits and melons, and all kinds of packages;

(3) Dumping or piling construction waste, dirt or other waste, dumping odds and bits, throwaways or throwing odds and bits or waste from buildings or vehicles;

Anyone that violates paragraph (1) of the preceding article shall be ordered to clean the litter immediately and shall be imposed a fine of not less than Renminbi 50 yuan but not more than Renminbi 100 yuan; Anyone that violates paragraph (2) of the preceding article shall be ordered to clean the litter immediately and shall be imposed a fine of not less than Renminbi 10 yuan but not more than Renminbi 50 yuan; Anyone that violates paragraph (3) of the preceding article shall be ordered to clean the litter within a definite time limit; anyone that fails to do the cleaning when the period of validity expires, the department concerned shall imposed on him a fine of not less than Renminbi 50 yuan but not more than Renminbi  100 yuan. Where the violator is a unit, it shall be imposed a fine of not less than RMB 500 yuan but not more than RMB 5,000 yuan

这儿也有几点值得注意的当地需求讲一讲。

1. 罚则中“xx至xx元”,有人简略地翻译成from xx to xx,好像显得不那么正式。咱们用not less than xx —but not more than xx,文字上就比较严厉,严厉。

2. Where的用法也值得注意。表明“假如”的当地,法令文书不必if ,而一般用where 去翻译。

3.有些固定词组也值得记忆,比方:impose a fine of xx on somebody;be ordered to do;the period of validity expires;fail to do等等,这儿就不逐个详细阐述了。

其实, 在翻译法令文书之前,仔细读一下有关法令条文的译文,记住一些要害的表达法,在自己翻译进程中会非常有用的。

以上简要地给我们介绍了法令法规的根本结构,即“开场白”、“结束语”以及“规则与罚则”。把握了这三部分的根本翻译办法,能够说法令文书翻译就入了门,剩余的就是“修行在个人”了。只要在此基础上,不断实践,不断堆集,不断学习,就必定能使自己的翻译水素日长月进,渐臻完美。