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词义语义问题引申的褒贬强弱

发布时间:2019-06-14  作者:cqylfy.com
重庆翻译公司在现代英汉语的翻译中,一个词(或一个词组)有潜在的多种对应景象,更需求翻译作业者给予特别留意,要预备为此支付更多的心智。下面以cap和tax为例再加以阐明。
在现代英语里,cap作动词用的频率很高。大型英汉词典对cap用作动词时的释义也比较具体,其间的一个释义是“完结”、“使满意完结或完毕”。可是在实践的翻译过程中,这一释义还必须派生出多种对应方能使译文正确通畅。如:
The birth of the new commonwealth capped a year that turned Yeltsin from a discounted maverick into one of the great figures of modern history.

这一年叶利钦从一个无关宏旨的依然故我者一跃成为现代史上的一位显赫人物,而新的独立国家联合体的诞生则给这一改变划上一个满意的句号。
US Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney capped a trip to Seoul with the announcement that Washington will suspend the withdrawal of American troops from South Korea next year.

美国国防部长迪克·切尼以一项声明完美完毕其首尔之行。他在声明中称,华盛顿下一年将暂停从南朝鲜撤出美军。
In the Middle East this January, the wettest, coldest winter in recent memory was capped by a storm that blanketed Amman,Damascus and Jerusalem with much more snow than anyone there had seen for 40 years.

本年一月份,中东地区多雨阴冷,这样的冬季近些年来还没有过。最终还来了一场暴风雪,席卷了安曼、大马士革和耶路撒冷,是40年来最大的一次。
Beginning late November, Bush is likely to visit Japan, South Korea, Australia and Indonesia-capping the trip with a stopover on 7 December in Honolulu for ceremonies marking the 50th anniversary of Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.
人在表达自己的思维时,常常带有爱情颜色,喜怒哀乐以及好恶等等。在汉译英时,留意词义的褒贬也是常常要留意的问题之一。例如:

1.学生应该从这儿得出一条经历,便是不要被假象所利诱。
[误译]Students should draw experience here: Don’t be misled by false appearances.
[正译]Students should draw a lesson here: Don’t be misled by false appearances.
[分析]这儿的“经历”不是成功的经历,而是从过错或失利中得出的经历,所以用experience不太适宜,而lesson表明经验、训诫、惩戒等义。所以用a lesson恰如其分。例如:a historical lesson written in blood 历史上血的经验。

2.你不要太急了,我比你还急。
[误译]Please don’t be too impatient.Actually,I’m more impatient than you are.
[正译]Please don’t be too anxious.Actually,I’m more anxious than you are.
[分析]“急”在这儿假如用impatient,贬义就太重,impatient有“不耐烦的”意思。最好改译成anxious。

3.打得赢就打,打不赢就走。
[误译]Fight when we can win and run away when we cannot.
[正译]Fight when you can win,move away when you cannot.
[分析]汉语原文的“走”没有贬义,因而move away比run away更好的表现了原文的爱情颜色。

有时有些译者逐词死译,导致一些尽管好像契合英语语法,可是不契合英语表达习气的误译,影响到跨文化外交。这也是汉译英常见的误译类型之一。例如:
1.欢迎你观赏咱们商品交易会。
[误译]Welcome you to visit our trade fair!
[正译]Welcome to our trade fair!
[分析]“欢迎或人做某事”英译时,welcome用的句型是welcome+to+名词,例如:欢迎你到我国来!Welcome to China!不能译为Welcome you to come to China。

2.店东让我父亲一天干16小时的活。
[误译]The shop-owner let father work 16 hours a day.
[正译]The shop-owner made father work 16 hours a day.
[分析]误译文全句表达的意思成了“店东赞同我父亲每天作业16小时”。Let在此表明赞同,而不是迫使。汉语原文的“让”的其间一个英语对应词是let,可是原文尽管用了“让”,其在原句的内在是“迫使”,因而,应运用make(迫使、促进)。

3.作为一个世界贸易组织,缺少我国,没有我国的参与,我看它也很难发挥作为一个世界贸易组织的应有效果。
[误译]As a world trade organization, I think, WTO without China will be hard to play its due role.
[正译]As a world trade organization, I think, WTO without the participation of China will find it hard to play its due role.
[分析]因为受汉语结构的影响,“很难”一词很简单被误译成(the organization)will be hard(to play its due role),这就饭了语法过错,应改译为“(the organization)will find it hard(difficult)(to play its due role)”。