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汉语英词主题结构误译之措词

发布时间:2019-06-18  作者:cqylfy.com
重庆翻译公司汉语主题结构,即译文语句主语的挑选。汉英言语转化技巧从本质上都可归结于英语表达技巧。在抱负状况下,译者应该首要切当了解汉语原文的含义,然后尽量脱节原文的字句捆绑,用英语进行考虑,依照英语的言语习气来表达原文的意思。所以,要想把握汉英言语转化技巧,关键是在于了解英语的言语规则和各种表达方法。汉译英的一个关键步骤是考虑译文的整个语句怎样摆放,怎么构建译文语句的整体结构,主要是确认拿什么作为英语主语。传统语法以为汉英语句整体结构相同,都归于“主—动—宾”类型。依照这一理论,当咱们进行汉译英时,译文与原文在语句结构上,尤其是在主语、谓语、宾语等重要成分的方位处理上,应当能做到大致相同。在某些状况下,的确如此,咱们可以直接把汉语原文的主语作为英译文的主语。

有时整句次第的倒置并非彻底有序,即整体上看全句被倒置了,但其句中的某些成分也可能有依据上下文需求而作灵敏迟疑的必要。请看下面一句及其译文:
The medical waste that has fouled beaches in the New York region at the peak of the summer season has taken its toll on business all along the shore,driving vacationers away both from beaches that have been closed and from those that have remained open. 
医疗废弃物污染了纽约区域的海边。时值盛夏,一些沿海浴场被封闭,赶走了大批的度假者,而依然敞开的一些沿海浴场也门可罗雀。这使海边区的商业蒙受损失。 

从译文可以精确的看出,原句的结构根本被打乱,只要The medical waste that has fouled beaches在原位不动。从at the peak of the summer season开端,语句结构的变化彻底是“伤筋动骨”的。
像下面这样的英语语句,虽然翻译时译者会觉得好像并不需求对原句在次序上进行较大起伏的变化,可是因为这种语句的行文方法为英语所特有,汉译时实际上无法根本依照原句的结构来译,从头构思的力度显着较强,这样的状况也就都归人句式重构的规模。
A potentially dangerous blunder by police and security authorities here yesterday saw Mrs Thatcher, the British Prime Minister, mobbed by yelling demonstrators during a shopping mall walkabout. 
差人和安全部分一时的粗枝大叶昨日几乎惹出大祸。撒切尔夫人(时任英国首相)在这里的一个购物中心散步时,被愤恨叫喊的示威人群团团围住了。

中译英最常见的过错不只有语法过错,也有措词方面的过错。形成过错的直接原因是常运用抽象名词或动名词,而不用动词。假如要想使咱们的译文简练,咱们有必要多运用动词,防止很多运用名词结构。例如:
1.咱们应促进音乐、言语和数学相结合。
[误译]We should promote the combination of music,language and mathmetics.
[正确]We should integrate music,language and mathmetics.
[分析]integrate的解说是to make into a whole by bringing all parts together,to unify,意思与promote the combination相同,可是用integrate,英译文更简练有力、更地道。

2.各种工业正阅历分解和整合,新旧对立相互交织。
[误译]Various industries are undergoing disintegration and realignment and the new and old contradictions are interwoven.
[正译]Industries are disintegration their elements are being realigned, and new contradictions are being interwoven with the old.
[分析]disintegration(分解)和realignment(整合)有动词方式,而不译undergo(阅历),不影响本句的含义。Industry的复数方式就表明“各种”,因而various不用译出。

3.全国植树造林,有利于今世和后代,应持之以恒的做下去。
[误译]The nationwide drive for afforestation,which benefits our contemporary, and future generations,should be carried on with perseverance.
[正译]We must persevere in the national drive for afforestation,which benefits both present and future generations.
[分析]“持之以恒”有相应的动词persevere,为何需求放弃它而用作用欠好的carried on with perseverance呢?