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汉译英句式重构主谓搭配翻译

发布时间:2019-06-18  作者:cqylfy.com
重庆翻译公司汉英两种言语有一个严重的不同,那便是英语不喜爱重复,假如在一句话里或相连的几句话里需求重复某个词语,则用代词来替代,或以其他手法来防止重复。所以汉译英时要想方设法防止重复,多用代称;英译汉时则要少用代称,多用实词。汉语不怕重复,接连运用某个词语是常见的事。汉语也用代词,但不如英语用得多。例如:
1.我国作为一个开展中的滨海大国,国民经济要持续开展,有必要把海洋的开发和维护作为一项长时间的战略任务。
[误译]As a major developing country with a long coastline,China,therefore,must take exploitation and protection of the ocean as a long-term strategic task before China can achieve the sustainable development of its national economy.
[正译]As a major developing country with a long coastline,China,therefore,must take exploitation and protection of the ocean as a long-term strategic task before it can achieve the sustainable development of its national economy.
[分析]指国家,能够用代词it和its,也能够用she或her。在英语里,用代词来指国家和船舶时,是能够用it和its和she或her的。

2.哈佛是最早承受我国留学生的美国大学之一。我国教育界、科学界、文化界一向同哈佛大学坚持着学术交流。
[误译]Harvard is among the first American universities to accept Chinese students.The Chinese educational,scientific and cultural communities have all along maintained academic exchanges with Harvard.
[正译]Harvard is among the first American universities to accept Chinese students.The Chinese educational,scientific and cultural communities have all along maintained academic exchanges with this university.
[分析]汉语原文“哈佛”呈现两次,而正译文中Harvard只呈现一次,第2次运用了代称this university。这样译,既防止了重复,又表现了两句之间的联络,译文也就显得流通。而假如译者忽视了英语的这一特色,注意力过火会集在单个语句上,照样重复,译文便成了两个孤立的语句了。

3.在中美两国首脑完成互访今后,中美之间开端致力于建造一种建造性的战略伙伴联系,开展势头本来是很好的。
[误译]Since the exchange of visits between the heads of China and of the United States,China and the United States have started to work to build towards a constructive and strategic partnership.The momentum of growth of China-US relations has been quite good.
[正译]Since the exchange of visits between the heads of China and of the United States,the two sides have started to work to build towards a constructive and strategic partnership.The momentum of growth of China-US relations has been quite good.
[分析]一般汉语喜爱原字重复,所以“中美”能够重复运用。英语中一般不喜爱过多重复,在译完China and the United States之后一般可改用the two sides(countries)等。英语常用代词,常改换词汇,不喜重复;汉语少用代词而喜爱用实称词,因而往往呈现重复。在汉译英时,应凭借英文的代词优势,必须防止重复。

英汉两种言语文化背景纷歧,行文结构与措辞习气相去甚远。翻译的进程使这两种言语发生磕碰而凸现种种不可防止的对立。译者的任务是要谐和这些对立。造就两种言语不断退让的局势。能够说,翻译的进程便是两种言语对立的发生、谐和或退让、再发生、再谐和或退让的进程。评论英译汉的种种操作,实践是在评论英译汉时译者运用何种战略来处理英汉两种言语磕碰所发生的对立。对立的规模与尖利程度纷歧样,翻译操作战略的运用也就纷歧样。

句式重构的操作第二种状况是整句英语语句彻底打乱后进行翻译。打乱后的语句成分怎么再作合理的摆放,并无定规。译者只能依据原文结构设计出一个最佳的汉语对等结构。让我们来研讨若干比如,详细分析一下所要译的语句从被打乱到从头拼装的进程。请看下面一句:
The company's top executives all are refugees from the country's bureaucratic and under  financed state research sector.
这句英语按其语序直译已无法到达“信”与“达”的要求,有必要先将其打乱,然后再依据其语义,在译文中从头组织语句结构。该语句被打乱后,各个成分可摆放如下:
-the company's top executives are (from) state research sector
-(the state research sector is) bureaucratic and under financed
-The company's top executives all are refugees (from the state research sector)
然后再依据以上摆放,译出语句:
该公司的高层司理人员都来自该国的国家研讨组织,这些组织不只充溢官僚主义气味,并且研讨经费不足,他们很难在那里呆下去。

主谓调配是指主语和谓语的调配。英汉两种言语的主谓调配,在大多数状况下是想通的。英语里一个主谓调配,译成汉语后,能够坚持本来的调配。但有时却不可,汉译英时也是这样。一般说来,汉语的主谓联系没有英语那么亲近。英语关于主语能否做后边的动作考虑较多。因而,译文以什么做主语,怎样和谓语调配,是汉译英时常常需求酌量的一个问题。这儿首要是指译文以什么作主语,也便是考虑主谓怎样调配的问题。有时为了突出重点,译文需求保存原文的主语,那就需求考虑选用适宜的动词了。捉住这个关键,或许防止许多我国式英语。例如:
1.我国水域、草原、山地资源丰富,开发潜力巨大。
[误译]China’s water,grassland and sloping land resources are rich and they have great potential for exploitation.
[正译]China has rich water,grassland and sloping land resources which have great potential for exploitation.
[分析]本句以我国作主语,而没有按照原文,以“水域”、“草原”、“山地”为主语。改正译文以China 作主语,管住全句,比较符合英语的习气。

2.我国的开展与前进,有利于人类文明。
[误译]The developing and progressing of China are favorable to the civilization of mankind.
[正译]a developing and progressing China is favorable to the civilization of mankind.
[分析]原译文以“开展与前进”作主语,而改正译文以“开展与前进的我国”(China)作主语,这样后边比较好组织,所考虑的首要便是主谓调配的问题。

3.在少数民族聚居的当地实行了区域自治。民族地区的经济社会取得不断的开展。
[误译]The places where there is a high concentration of ethnic minorities practices regional autonomy.These regions’ economic and social development have continued.
[正译]In places where there is a high concentration of ethnic minorities regional autonomy is in practice.These regions  have witnessed continued economic and social development.
[分析]原文的两个语句别离以“当地”和“经济社会”为主语,原译文也以它们为主语,可是呈现了主谓调配不妥的问题。改正译文改换了主语,并用相应的改动了谓语。