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英译汉词汇成份互换省略词语的误译

发布时间:2019-06-20  作者:cqylfy.com
重庆翻译公司英语用词力戒重复,常常用代替、省掉、和改换的表达方法防止重复;汉语用词不怕重复,常常运用实称、复原和复说的表达方法。英语词汇的音节良莠不齐,结构犬牙交错,所以不注重用词的均衡和对偶;汉语非常讲究词语的偶式对应,特别喜爱运用四字词组和排比式词汇。英汉对译时务必要留意要它们各自的用词习气。例如: 
1、Everybody has a responsibility to be society of which he is a part and through this to mankind. 
[误译]每个人都对他所属的社会负有责任,经过这点走向人类。 
[正译]每个人都对他所属的社会负有责任,经过社会,对人类负有责任。 
[分析]原文的this指society。而through this和to mankind之间,省掉了主语、谓语动词和宾语everybody has a responsibility,译成汉语应在“经过社会,对人类”后边重复“负有责任”。这句是省掉主语、谓语动词和宾语或许引起的误解。汉译时要重复“社会”和“负有责任”。

2、She makes a good teacher,as she has a good student.
[误译]她成为一个好教师,由于她有一个好学生。
[正译]她原先是个好学生,现在是个好教师。
[分析]这句的has 后边省掉了过去分词made,这儿的has不作“有”解,而是助动词,has made作“原先是”解。省掉了过去分词made引起的误解。

3、This technique has been available  in Britain for years,but its versatility has never been exploited extensively as it has Germany.
[误译]这一技能几年来在英国一向选用,可是它的多种用处还没有在德国广泛运用。
[正译]这一技能几年来在英国一向选用,可是它的多种用处没有像德国那样广泛运用。
[分析]这句的as it has 后边省掉谓语动词的一部分been exploited和状语extensively,本意是“德国已广泛运用这种技能的多种用处,而英国还没有”,如译为“它的多种用处还没有在德国广泛运用”,那就与本意恰巧相反。这句是省掉谓语动词和状语或许引起的误译。

“顺句操作”这一翻译方法不只答应部分小范围的词序变化,也不扫除严密相连的两个断句成份彼此换位的或许性。下面便是一个比如:
President Mikhail Gorbachev of the Soviet Union, capitalizing on the modern phenomenon of the“instant book", will publish a memoir this week in which he pledges abiding allegiance to the“socialist idea”// and tries to explain the tactical blunders//that led to the coup against him this summer.

当代世界有个现象,便是许多人可“著书速成”。苏联总统米哈伊尔,戈尔巴乔夫也挤进了这个队伍。本星期他将出书一本回忆录。书中他不只立誓对“社会主义思维”抱始终不渝的忠实,并且还试图为其战略失误作辩解。这些失误导致今夏发作旨在推翻他的政变。

断句后的翻译操作将原文榜首句的榜首部分与第二部分的方位进行了交换,意图在于能使译文更有逻辑性,但并未因此而有损于原句的根本意思。

“顺句操作”翻译经常会碰到的另一个问题是英语被迫态的处理。在许多情况下,断句之后,只要将英语的被迫句译成汉语的自动句即可。
A landmark decision yesterday by an industrial tribunal on pension equality// could leave the UK pension industry facing extra costs of£13 billion a year.

昨日一职业胶葛审理委员会就退休金相等问题作出一项前所未有的判决。此举或许使英国的养老金办理工作每年要多开销130亿英镑。
Soldiers' salaries have been so eroded // by budget constraints and by the soaring cost of living//that a major serving in a combat zone earns the equivalent of just $230 per month//一plus $10 hazardous duty pay.

财务窘迫,生活费用急剧上涨,使得武士实践月饷大大缩水。在战区执役的一位少校每月只拿到相当于230美元的军饷,外加10美元作为履行风险使命的补助。
But public outrage over abuse of privilege continued to mount,//fueled by// allegations of dope dealing at the House Post Office, unpaid bills at the exclusive members' dining room and extravagant junketeering at taxpayers' expense.

英语一般名词有可数与不可数之分,其间有些一般名词既可作可数名词,又可作不可数名词,但含义不尽相同。例如,paper用作不可数名词时作“纸”解,而用作可数名词时则做“报纸”解,如,an evening paper(一张晚报)。别的,汉语词汇比较灵敏,许多词汇可所以可数名词,也可所以不可数名词,可是英语中有些名词只能当抽象名词运用,有必要与其他其体名词连用才干变得可数。这在汉译英时要尤为当心。例如:
1、在他的干涉下,进行了不少盲意图重复建造。
[误译]Under his intervention there have been a lot of indiscriminate and duplicated constructions.
[正译]Under his intervention there have been a lot of indiscriminate and duplicated constructions projects.
[分析]英语中有些名词只能当抽象名词运用,有必要与其他其体名词连用才干变得可数。所以,duplicated constructions 应改为duplicated constructions projects。

2、我想往后不会有太多的金融机构破产,或许就没有了。
[误译]I don’t expect to see too many bankruptcies of financial firms in the future, and maybe there will be none.
[正译]I don’t expect to see too many bankruptcies cases of financial firms in the future, and maybe there will be none.
[分析]汉语词汇比较灵敏,“破产”可所以可数名词,也可所以不可数名词。但bankruptcy是不可数名词,为表明复数概念能够增词翻译为bankruptcy cases。