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翻译的定义词汇误译中的适当添加

发布时间:2019-06-21  作者:cqylfy.com
重庆翻译公司英译文口气过强也是我国式英语的一个标志。汉语口气较强,常含有夸大性的词语,汉语中也有不少绝对化的表达方式;而英语则考究宛转、含蓄,不肯把话说足。译者应了解这种差异,英译时有认识地恰当削弱英译文的口气。在正常的情况下过火着重,反而削弱词语的含义。例如: 
1、到我国来访问的贵宾,我上一年都跟他们讲过。 
[误译]I have discussed that with all of the distinguished guests last year. 
[正译]I have discussed that with many foreign visitors last year. 
[分析]本句汉语的言辞有些夸大,英译时需求削弱口气。因而,“一切到这儿的贵宾”译为many foreign visitors。

2、关于广东信托投资公司事情,我想这样的一个问题也是我们所关怀的。
[误译]On the question of Guangdong International Trust and Investment Company,I think this is also a question of interest to everyone.
[正译]On the question of Guangdong International Trust and Investment Company,I think this is also a question of interest to many of you.
[分析]“我们”不要译成口气很激烈的everyone或许等词all,可弱化为many。

3、中心的财务,银行,都拿不出钱来支撑转基因技能。把钱浪费了。
[误译]The central government and including various state banks do not have money to support transgene technology because a lot of money has been squandered.
[正译]The central government and including various state banks do not have enough money to support transgene technology because a lot of money has been squandered.
[分析]原汉语中所说的中心财务“拿不出钱来”支撑转基因技能,仅仅一种较为夸大的说法,假如将英译文改成do not have enough money,口气适可而止。

以前史的眼光来审视翻译的一系列界说,不难发现,将翻译看成是一门艺术,由此又将善译界说为艺术的结晶,是一种十分显眼的现象。这在传统的译论中占有重要方位,至今仍具有强壮的影响。这类界说在各种翻译理论的书本中比比皆是。
界说1:
At its finest, translation has nothing to gain from the(mathematically)puerile diagrams and flow-charts put forward by would-be theoreticians. It is,it always will be, what Wittgenstein called“an exact art." (Steiner, 1998: xvi)
那些自称是理论家们的天真图表底子无助于处于最精雅状况的翻译。翻译,如维根斯坦所称,是,并且总是“一门朴实的艺术”。 

一般来说,把翻译说成是一门艺术,往往针对文学作品翻译的景象较多,这也是可理解的,正如下面这个界说所说明那样:
界说2:  
In literary texts, linguistic form has not only a text-cohesive, but also an aesthetic function; it carries the creative will of the artist, and this lends the literary text an outward appearance which, in principle, can never be repeated and can therefore be realized in the TL only in analogous form. Hence,  ... literary translation is an art, not a craft. (Wills, 1982: 77)

在文学作品中,言语的方式不只具有文本聚合功用,还具有关学功用。它带着艺术家的构思,其表面不可被重复,在译入语中也只能以类比方式表现。文学翻译因而是艺术而非因熟生巧之技艺。不过,很多翻译实践也证明,翻译的艺术性并非只属文学翻译所专有,其他文体类型或文本的翻译也都会或多或少引发译者艺术的幻想。从某种含义上讲,上乘的翻译或善译都离不开译者对原文的故意揣摸,离不开译者在文字与方式两个方面的精心打造。这一点,从下面的几个界说里都能领会得出来。

界说3:
(A good translation is) one which fulfills the same purpose in the new language as the original did in the language in which it was written. (Venuti, 2000: 131)
翻译在另一言语中到达了原作在原语中的意图(即为善译)。这个界说着重译文的艺术性是要使译文到达与原文相同的意图。

下面一句的“顺势断句”操作可以说是十分典型的:
China is to invite international tenders before the end of this year for four new nuclear power reactors as part of a huge nuclear expansion programme designed to reduce dependence on imported fuel and plug growing gaps in electricity generating capacity.

断句:
China is to invite international tenders before the end of this year for four new nuclear power reactors//as part of a huge nuclear expansion programme//designed to reduce dependence on imported fuel//and plug growing gaps in electricity generating capacity.

我国在今年年底前迁就新建四个核电反应堆进行世界投标。这是我国庞大的核电扩展方案的一部分,旨在削减对进口燃料油的依靠,并添补不断增大的动力出产缺口。
从操作上说,“顺句操作”便是将本来的语句先作有序的切开,翻译时实际上又要将本来断开的各个成份有机地串起来。在详细翻译的过程中,或许要转换原文的某些表述方式,或许要增加一些字词,但只要是不妨微观语义,都是彻底应当答应的。请看下面三个比如,并别离比较译文与原文:
China's banking regulator has asked lenders to withdraw funding for projects in sectors me government considers most at risk of overcapacity in a further move to restrain runway investment in the country.

断句:
China's banking regulator has asked lenders to withdraw funding for projects in sectors//the government considers most at risk of overcapacity//in a further move to restrain runaway investment in the country.

我国的银监会要求各银行回收对一些职业的项目借款。政府以为,这些职业存在极大的出产能力过剩的风险。这是遏止该国失控的投资热的一个进一步举。 
The latest evidence that Beijln9 1s making progress in its efforts to rein in investment in Sectors ranging from cars to property will go some way to ease fears that China's economy-a vital source of global growth-could be heading for a Crash.