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汉译英翻译词序差异和拟人化

发布时间:2019-06-24  作者:cqylfy.com
重庆翻译公司形成我国式英语的一个重要原因是不留意汉英词序的差异,汉语中最重要的往往在前头,重量轻的殿后,而英语则反之,单词连用时是重量轻的在前,最重的一般在后头。例如: 
1、他们是些无地及少地的农人。 
[误译]They are peasants with no or little land. 
[正译]They are peasants with little or no land.
[分析]汉语从最严峻的“无地”开端,然后到“少地”,而英语则相反,单词的含义在弱变强,即little or no land。

2、某些企业要关、停、并、转,或许削减生产任务。
[误]Some enterprises should either close down,suspend operation,be amalgamated with others,switch to other products,or cut production.
[正]Some enterprises should either cut production,switch to other products,be amalgamated with others,or simply close down.
[分析]汉语原文从最严峻的状况开端罗列到最轻的景象:“关、停、并、转,或许削减”,翻译成英语后要倒置次序,变为“削减、转、并、停或许关”,以契合英语的表达方法。

3、有五种爵位:公侯伯子男。
[误译]There are five ranks of nobility:duke,marquis,earl,viscount and baron.
[正译]There are five ranks of nobility:baron,viscount,earl,marquis and duke.
[分析]汉语的“公侯伯子男”,爵位由高到低,是汉语的思想方法;而英语的思想方法是由低到高,要点一般在后头,因而应按“男人伯候公”的次序来英译。
Translation cannot be termed a purely“linguistic operation" (Fedorov,1953), as has been presumed under the influence of MT, but rather must be thought of as a psycholinguistic,sociolinguistic and pragmalinguistic process which lends itself to an exhaustive scientific depict.ion only with the greatest difficulty. This is partly because the science of translation is, in the last analysis, a borderline science characterized by the continuing interplay of descriptive, explanatory, and normative questions. (Wills, 1982: 65)
翻译不能被说成是一种朴实的“言语活动”,后者是受机器翻译影响而出理的一种推定,而应被认定是一个心思言语学、社会言语学及语用言语学的进程。对这个进程作翔实的科学描绘困难极大。部分原因是,翻译科学说到底是一个与其他学科穿插的科学,其特色体现为描绘、解说与标准的种种问题不断地相互作用、相互影响。
除着重翻译是一个杂乱的进程外,还进一步说到这个杂乱进程或许 要触及的几个方面,即心思言语学、社会言语学及语用言语学等。换句话说,译者走笔之时应当要考虑到作者或读者的心思活动、所在的社会环境与必定的上下文等超言语的要素。唯其如此,译出来的东西方或许真实达意,方或许有更佳的承受作用。有的翻译学者乃至将这种超言语要素的考虑提升至言语世界观改动的高度:

Translation is thus and will continue to be ... a relative concept ... (It should be)said that every translation. represents a transposition from the perspectives of onelinguistic view of the world to those of another and that this cannot take place entirelywithout changes or metamorphoses. (Wills, 1982: 41)
翻译因而将持续是一个相对的概念。可以说每种翻译都是从一种言语世界观视点向另一种言语世界观视点的转化,而这种转化若不伴以种种改动或变异是不或许彻底完成的。
实践是为翻译根据言语层面操作的传统约束开了松绑之门。所谓的“种种改动或变异”最直接的体现当然是反映在言语的转化上,即萧规曹随的翻译是站不住脚的,言语的结构与词语表述当随言语世界观(视点)的改动而改动。

我国有人数最多的英语学习者。以我国文化为布景、以汉语为母语的学习者在习得英语时所呈现出我国式英语,很值得研讨,对我国式英语持何种情绪也十分重要。咱们学习英语的意图是要进行跨文化外交,不论此种外交是口头方式的,仍是书面方式的。要成功进行跨文化外交,咱们所运用的英语越挨近地道英语越好。

我国式英语的其间一个标志是很多运用拟人化方法。中文的拟人化程度较高,拟人化现象在汉语中常见,便是非人物性名词词组常可充任主语和行为的宣布者,在英语中,大都状况下,被视为是修辞上的一种病句。因而在汉英翻译中要留意这个差异,英译时应留意将其转化为人物性的名词或与人类活动有密切关系的集体安排,以避免受汉语影响而呈现误译。例如:
1、我也成了一个受害者,由于在这个杂志的封面上面登了我的相片,看起来像个死人。
[误译]I have been a victim too, because on the cover of that magazine my photo, my picture looks like a dead man.
[正译]I have been a victim too, because on the cover of that magazine my photo, my picture makes me look like a dead man.
[分析]在原文中,非壬午性名词“相片”充任了“看起来像个死人”的主语,如英译成my photo looks like a dead man.在英语中不当。将它调整为my photo makes me looks like a dead man.,即I look like a dead man,就避免了拟人化现象。

2、已经有一个美国的基金安排到我国来,预备出资。
[误译]One of the US foundations came to China to make some investment.
[正译]One of the US foundations once organized a mission to China to make some investment.
[分析]本句汉语中拟人化程度较高,非人物性名词foundations与动作性动词came调配运用。在英语中如说a foundations came to China不容易被人承受,所以在One of the US foundations 后边补译organized a mission(代表团)to China。

3、我国的高科技工作,需求尽或许多的知识分子为它服务。
[误译]The cause of our country’s high technology industry needs as many intellectuals as possible to serve it.
[正译]China(Our country)needs the services of as many intellectuals as possible intellectuals as possible to server it.
[分析]原译文的首要问题是主语没有用对,使原译文有拟人化的倾向。假如译文不能使主语和谓语动词调配,那就应改动主语或改动谓语动词,不行逐词死译。“工作”在本句中是领域词,是虚指,没什么本质含义,可省去不译。