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翻译基于语言层面考虑的固定词组

发布时间:2019-06-25  作者:cqylfy.com
ranslation is a process of "deverbalizing" and "reverbalizing"; it leads from an SLT to a TLT which is as close an equivalent as possible and presupposes an understanding of the content and style of the original. Translation, according to this definition,is a process which can be subdivided wit:hin itself. It comprises two main phases, a phase of semasiological understanding, during which the translator analyzes the SLT for intended meaning and style, and a phase of onomasiological reconstruction (TLrecomposition) during which the translator reproduces the SLT, analyzed as to content and style, while giving optimal consideration to points of communicative equivalence.  (Wills.1982:62)
重庆翻译公司翻译是一个“词语解构”和“词语重构”的进程,它从源语文本走向方针语文本,使后者尽可能挨近等值,并以了解原文的内容与风格为先决条件。依据这一界说,翻译作为一个进程自身还可再细分。它由两个首要阶段构成:一是语义了解进程,在这一进程中译者为取得原作意思和风格而剖析原作文本;二是语义重构进程,在这一进程中译者再造源语文本,从内容与风格两方面进行剖析,一起对外交对等的各个关键处以优化考虑。

从翻译的技能操作层面来讲,这个界说十分准确。它提出的“词语解构”和“词语重构”这两道工序是任何一位译者都能感同身受的事(当然从翻译的整个进程而论,好像还应有一个“句法重构”进程,即按承受语的语法规矩从头行文)。值得特别注意的一点是,界说最终还说到在语义重构时“一起对外交对等的各个关键处以优化考虑”。又如:

I have defined translation as information offered in a language z of culture Z which imitates information offered in language a of. culture A so as to fulfill the desired function. That means that a translation is not the transcoding of words or sentences from one language into another, but a complex action in which someone provides information about a text under new functional, cultural and linguistic conditions and in a new situation, whereby formal characteristics are imitated as far as possible. (Snell-Hornby, 1995: 46)     
我将翻译界说为:用属Z文明的言语z供给信息,它拷贝用属A文明的言语a供给的信息,以便完结想要到达的功用。这就从另一方面代表着翻译并不是词与句从一种言语进入另一种言语的转码活动,而是一种杂乱的行为。藉此,某个人在新的功用、文明与言语条件下,在一种新的情形中供给一种文本的信息,一起又尽可能地将原文的方式特色逐个拷贝下来。

不太相同之处是,它清晰否定翻译是两种言语之间的“转码”活动,而是一种“杂乱的行为”;着重在尽可能保存原文方式特色的一起,杰出一个“新”字,即“新的功用、文明与言语条件”、“新的情形”(当然应包括“新的受众”)。不再将翻译与文字的机械对应混为一谈已成为译学界的一种一致。这就从另一方面代表着,译者在进行文字转化的一起,言语层面的考虑应当涉及到整个华章的架构意义及其风格表达。正如下面这一界说所着重的那样,翻译一种言语并不只限于单词孤字的处理。

英语中有些词组,能够从其字面的相加意义来了解,但同样是这个词组,有时则有它的特别意义或别的的意思。因而,首要还应经过上下文来确认其意义。例如: 
1、Compare this with what happens is the mass production of poultry; there are battery farms,for example, where thousands of chickens live crowded in onebuilding and are fed on food which is little better than rubbish. 
[误译]把这个与大规模养鸡的状况比较:例如在层架式鸡场里,不计其数只鸡挤在一幢房子里,吃的是略微比废物好一点的东西。
[正译]把这个与大规模养鸡的状况比较:例如在层架式鸡场里,不计其数只鸡挤在一幢房子里,吃的简直便是废物。
[分析]better than是比较级,有“比........好”的意思,a little better than 可译成“比......略微好一些”。可是,这句用的是little better than ,是一个固定的词组调配,作“简直等于”、“无异于”解。所以不能大略一看,就把它当作一般的词组了解。要注意有固定意义的词组和只要字面意义的词组的差异。

2、It is evident that the responsibility of the citizen involves more than just paying taxes to buy defense hardware.
[误译]很明显,公民的职责是要超越缴税,去购买国防兵器。
[正译]很明显,公民的职责不单单是在于交税,让国家购买国防兵器。
[分析]more than看上去是一个比较结构,实际上是一个固定词组,作“不单单是”解。例如:I discovered that more than desire and feeling were necessary to write.‘我发现要写作,需求的不只仅是希望和爱情。’有时do more than+v.结构也表明这个意思,例如:Universities across the nation have decided to do more than talk about the rise in student cheating.‘全国各地的大学已决议不只仅只议论学生做弊上升。’

学习或研讨翻译首要应当了解“何谓翻译”?而给翻译下界说好像不是一件很难的事。有一个翻译界说咱们似都耳熟能详:翻译是用一种言语文字忠诚而流畅地传达另一种言语文字所包括的意思或思维。这个翻译界说,或者说这一类的翻译界说,尽管没有错,可是都太简略,也太抽象了些,关于咱们要比较深化地知道或了解翻译现象是缺少提醒性的。在正式评论翻译的界说之前,  有必要先对“翻译”(translate)这个词作个简略的词源调查,为咱们更好地了解翻译原本的意义个衬托。     

英语动词translate源自于拉丁词translatus,而translatus又是transferre的  过去分词。在拉丁语里,transferre的意思是carry或transport,指的是担负物件将其转移至另一当地。词根trans自身含有时空变迁的意思,而ferre除了“负重”与“转移”的意指外,还有endure与suffer的意义(Gentzler, 2001:166)。据此,translate的深层意义能够完好说明为:把某一样东西,穿越必定的时间或空间,从一个当地搬到另一个当地,整个进程对转移者而言是要饱尝苦楚或苦难的。从某种意义上说,这样的说明确实道出了翻译的实质。当然,还应弥补一点的是,如西班牙大哲学家加塞特(Jose Ortega Gasset)所言(Venuti, 2000: 49-63),翻译者在翻译进程中所阅历的不只有“苦楚”(misery),更有“光辉”(splendor)。

翻译尽管能够说明为穿越时空而作的某种转移,可是要给它下一个切当的界说却仍是一件不容易办到的事,尤其是要给出一个一致且遍及适用的界说就更难,乃至不可能。到目前为止,翻译界或翻译研讨界的人士给翻译下界说仍然是仁者见仁,智者见智。这是为什么呢?美国闻名翻译家兼翻译理论家奈达(Eugene Nida)有过如下的说明:
Definition s of proper translating are almost as numerous and varied as the persons who have undertaken to discuss the subject. This diversity is in a sense quite understandable; for there are vast differences in the materials translated. in the purposes of the publication, and in the needs of the prospective audience. Moreover, live languages are constantly changing and stylistic p references undergo continual modification. Thus a translation acceptable in one period is often quite unacceptable at a latter time. (Venuti, 2000: 131)