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重庆翻译公司英汉词汇互译的标准及步骤

发布时间:2019-07-24  作者:cqylfy.com
重庆翻译公司英语翻译经过翻译实践,对英汉两种不同言语的特色加以比照、概略和总结,以找出一般的表达规则来,防止呈现一些不应呈现的翻译过错,而这些表达的规则便是所说的翻译技巧。

词义的挑选和引伸技巧
英汉两种言语都有一词多类和一词多义的现象。一词多类便是指一个词往往归于几个词类,具有几个不同的含义;一词多义便是同一个词在同一词类中又往往有几个不同的词义。在英译汉的进程中,咱们在弄清原句结构后,就要长于运用挑选和确认原句中关键词词义的技巧,以使所译句子天然流通,完全符合汉语习气的说法;挑选确认词义一般能够从两方面着手:
1、依据词在句中的词类来挑选和确认词义
They are as like as two peas .他们类似极了。(形容词)
He likes mathematics more than physics .他喜爱数学甚于喜爱物理。(动词)
Wheat, oat, and the like are cereals .小麦、燕麦等等皆系谷类。(名词)

2、依据上下文联络以及词在句中的调配联系来挑选和确认词义。
He is the last man to come .他是最终来的。
He is the last person for such a job .他最不配干这个作业。
He should be the last man to blame.怎样也不应怪他。
This is the last place where I expected to meet you .我怎样也没料到会在这个当地见到你。

词义转译当咱们遇到一些无法直译或不宜直译的词或词组时,应依据上下文和逻辑联系,引伸转译。
The energy of the sun comes to the earth mainly as light and heat .太阳能主要以光和热的方式传到地球。

词义详细化依据汉语的表达习气,把原文中某些词义较抽象的词引伸为词义较详细的词。
The last stage went higher and took the Apollo into orbit round the earth.最终一级火箭升得更高,把“阿波罗号”送进环绕地球运转的轨迹。

精确了解词义
1. 依据上下文辨词义。
2. 论褒贬,即要留意近义词之间有不同的语体颜色、使用规模及程度。
任何言语都有语体之分,有典雅的、浅显的、野蛮 的,还有俚语、公函用语及术语等。文学作品中,作家经过不同的语体来描写人物的性格特征,更是常用的办法。翻译时,有必要审其雅俗,量其轻重,这样,才干恰如其分地表达原文的精力。

(1) 词义有轻重的不同
例如表明“打破”的词
break是最一般的用语,意思是经冲击或施加压力而破碎。
crack是呈现了裂缝,但还没有变成碎片。
crush是从外面用力往内或从上往下而压碎。
demolish是损坏、铲平或削平(如土堆、建筑物、城堡等)。
destroy是完全炸毁,使之无法恢复。
shatter是忽然使一物体破坏。
smash旧指因为出人意料的一阵暴力带一动静而完全破坏。
又如表明“亮光”的词
shine照射;指光的安稳发射。
glitter亮光;指光的不安稳发射。
glare耀眼;表明光的最强度。
sparkle闪耀;指发射微细的光度。

(2)词义有规模巨细和偏重面的不同
在必定上下文中,在agriculture,farming,cultivation,agronomy四个词中:griculture指农业科学、农业技术、整个农业生产进程,所包括的规模最广。farming指农业的实践。cultivation指农业物的培养进程。agronomy指把科学原理运用到农业耕耘中去的实践。

Session V: Clothes Make the Man(and Women)(人靠衣装)
1. Dress to Kill = wear one's finest clothing
衣服美丽得电死人。
典范短文:
The reception for the new Swedish ambassador at the Jenison’s was quite lavish. Naturally, everybody was dressed to kill. Since it was a formal occasion, everyone was dressed in their finniest, most elegant clothes.

2. Knock Someone's Socks Off = enthuse and excite
让人振奋得连袜子都掉了。
典范对话:
A:Hi, John. What's new?
B: Oh, nothing too much with me, but you ought to see Alfredo's new car. It'll knock your socks off!
A: So, he finally got that Italian sports car he's been dreaming about.
B: He sure did! When you see all the custom features that it has, you'll get so enthused and excited you won't know what to do!
A: Boy, I can hardly wait to go for a ride in it!

3. Lose One's Shirt = lose a great deal of money
连衬衫都输掉了,表明输了许多钱。
典范对话:
A: I happened to bump into Doug at lunch yesterday afternoon.
B: What's new with Doug these days?
A: He wasn't doing so well. For one thing, he told me he lost his shirt at the races.
B: Doug has always liked to bet on the horses. I'm not surprised that he lost a great deal of money.
A: Yeah. At this rate he'll never have a penny to his name!

4. Wet Blanket = dull or boring person who spoils the happiness of others
盖湿毯子当然不舒服,像湿毯子相同的人,必定是令人厌烦、倒人食欲的人。
典范短文:
James was not invited to go on the outing with the rest of the group because he's such a web blanket. On many previous occasions he has kept others from enjoying themselves by his pessimism and lack of enthusiasm. It's understandable that no one wants him around.

5. Dress to the Teeth = dressed elegantly
跟我国成语武装到牙齿有异曲同工之妙,表明或人化尽心血着装装扮。
典范对话:
A: Did you see Hilda at the party last night?
B: Yes, I did. She was really dressed to the teeth!
A: Well, she had on her finest, most elegant clothing because she was out to make a good impression on Bill.